Louis Vuitton Introduces A Brand New Belt Bag In Monogram Vernis

The most common trunks of the era were round, which weren’t ideal for toting and storing. In 1858, Vuitton debuted his lightweight, handcrafted canvas trunks, which were sturdy, rugged and equipped with convenient compartments. When Louis Vuitton died in 1892, control of the luxury house was passed onto his only son, Georges Vuitton. Fashioned in classic Monogram canvas and signed with a 'Louis Vuitton Paris' leather patch, this uber-functional bumbag transforms sportswear into the very definition of casual chic.... Once, a single “It” handbag ruled each fashion season. Today, handbag lovers are savvier and have a wider range of shopping options.

On 1stDibs, the unmistakable insignia can be found on both modern and vintage Louis Vuitton shoulder bags, suitcases, original 19th-century trunks, jackets and more. Of course this fanny pack is crafted from the famous dark brown canvas covered with LV monograms with nude coloured leather detailing. This is the laziest design I have seen of a belt bag.

Now, for fall 2019, the brand has released a fresh new belt bag, which differs in both its shape and its leather. Some call them belt bags, while others call them waist bags. Although there is no consensus about what to call them, we can all agree that what was once a dorky accessory for dads and tourists is now a wardrobe must-have. There is no denying its cool and chic status, so if you do not have a designer belt bag yet, now is your chance.

These bags are ridiculous and this one looks just like a Coach one I saw on sale for $90 . It’s cute but let’s be honest… it’s going to be super unflattering on thicker silhouettes. When you log in the first time using a Social Login, we collect your account public profile information shared by the social network, based on your privacy settings.

CURATOR'S NOTES Louis Vuitton Monogram Canvas Men's Women's Fanny Pack Waist Belt Bag Monogram canvas Gold tone hardware Snap button closure Date code present Made in France Total... Inside Louis Vuitton’s Most Popular Handbag Collaborations The venerable brand has earned accolades for partnerships that meld fashion with art. Louis Vuitton adorable, incredibly efficient side bag. Enough room for a small wallet, lipsticks, coin purse, cell phone, and any other s... Louis Vuitton Black Leather Men's Women's Fanny Pack Waist Bag Size listed on belt 34/85 Leather Gold tone hardware Buckle closure Date code present Made in France Total belt length... Indeed, the color transfer issue on lighter-colored Louis Vuitton verni bags is worth an entire PurseBlog column on its own.

Give your belt bags collection an instant upgrade with on-trend additions from Louis Vuitton. Each piece is crafted with care using materials like canvas, and every detail is carefully considered. Look to Louis Vuitton's range of belt bags for a simple way to lift your outfit. Louis Vuitton continues to impress with its wide selection of coveted pieces that always feel modern. Regular care and maintenance will help keep canvas in its original condition for longer. To maintain the appearance and prolong the life of canvas, it will need to be cleaned and treated properly.

Louis Vuitton Monogram Canvas Neverfull Mm Bag

Came here to learn about how to spot a fake Louis Vuitton Bumbag? You are in the right place as we are about to teach... To authenticate Louis Vuitton belt LV Initiales you should start by observing the iconic logo in the front. To authenticate Louis Vuitton Keepall 55 Bag you should start by analyzing the overall look with measurements and tin... The leather used in these two models are different too.

Possible light soiling of materials on the shoe uppers. Most of our product are not inclusive of product additionals . Concerning certain brands, do provide the product additionals at an additional price, in such case, you may purchase such product additionals for an additional price. The only exceptions are most super luxury product by which you will receive the exact brand packing and dustbags as the stores provide . I did buy this Neverfull brand new and ended up selling it to a close friend.

Designer bags often cost more than what makes sense when we take a look at materials and labor. For example, the classic Neverfull is made with a coated canvas material. This should be rather inexpensive , yet this tote costs over $1,000 USD. What we’re paying for here, in all honesty, is the brand. We’re also paying for the luxury make and a luxury experience. The Neverfull is a classic tote silhouette shoulder bag.

I’ve also personally found the pouch that comes with new Neverfulls useless. The pouch that comes with the Neverfull is too thin and awkwardly shaped to be of any real function. Many pre-loved versions do not include this pouch because sellers often sell it separately, meaning you can snag the bag at an even lower price if it comes pouch-less. From a more real life, everyday standpoint – the difference between when I reach for my MM vs my GM is purely a matter of occasion.

No one saw this coming, but you can’t deny that this is an expectedly great find from Louis Vuitton, especially for those who have been wanting this for a while now. Yes, ladies, this new Neverfull MM now comes with two extra ring loops and a braided shoulder strap. We inspect each bag thoroughly and if any flaws exist, we will make a note under the condition rating under the listing. CD Very Well Used - Still workable condition but can have some major rubbed corners, dark leather tanning patina, stains.

If you're trying to find a bag that's fashionable and has a big room inside of it then this model should be the best. Stay up-to-date on the latest trends and sale events. Plus, you can now shop my Instagram outfits straight from your inbox. Handle Drop is measured from high point of the strap to bag opening. Here’s your opportunity to buy the item at a lower price. Please inquire the details of import duties or taxes at the customs office in your country directly before making an order.

It should be lightweight, the leather should look thin and modern. As you just witnessed, sometimes it's very hard to spot a fake bag even if you have this bag in your hands. As I was examining the bag, something caught my eye. While the upper piece of hardware looks like authentic Louis Vuitton font, the lower one looks much cheaper. Does the zipper color mean anything straight away?

Louis Vuitton Neverfull Handbags

First of all, the sizing of letters- they must be larger than they're on the unauthentic fabric, just as shown in the upper picture. You can see how thin, low-quality and mistakenly chosen colored this thread is and this wasn't even enough, as they created stitches carelessly that may come off at any minute. Replica factories failed to pay much attention to the size, as the authentic bag clearly is bigger than the one shown within the bottom picture. Basically, we offer free shipping no matter where you buy, and you can also ask us about our warranty for high value items. Please take a look at the descriptions and the pictures above to check the condition of the item before the purchase.

Buying it new really didn’t add anything to the experience of owning the bag. I purchased my Neverfull GM from Fashionphile and my MM sized Damier Azur was a gift from my parents (also purchased pre-loved!). And yes – I actually DO like being gifted used handbags. Unlike cars which immediately begin losing value as soon as you drive them off the lot, some designer handbags can actually increase in value over time.

I've seen a lot of heat stamps on mirror replicas and they look just the same as authentic heat stamps. An authentic Louis Vuitton Neverfull in Monogram Canvas has a brown zipper. If you came across this article, you're probably interested in learning how to authenticate Louis Vuitton. The PM is perfect for everyday use, a stroll in the city or a fancy diner. The strap drops are 16.5cm, 20.0cm and 20.0cm respectively. There are 3 sizes for Neverfull, including PM, MM and GM.

The interior has some stains, but is still clean and in great condition. The Louis Vuitton Neverfull tote bag is made from Monogram canvas, cowhide trim, and handles that hit over the shoulder or in hand. The Louis Vuitton Neverfull is roomy inside the body, perfect for carrying everyday essentials or for light travel.

Shoe photographed is for sizing reference only and is not included in the sale. In certain cases, a coupon offered in Haute24 stores may not be applied toward purchases on haute24.com. We avail third-party advertising companies to serve ads when You visit Our Website. These companies may use information about Your visits to this and other websites/Websites in order to provide advertisements about goods and services of interest to You. A full payment in advance may be required from time to time, to book all special/select/exclusive deals.

How rich is Dubai? Only when I went there did I realize that the rich are all locals, but in fact there are also many poor

 At first, despite the opposition of her family, my cousin insisted on marrying to Dubai and gave birth to 4 children in 5 years. Although she lived in a luxury house, took a luxury car, and had endless money, her heart was miserable. After marriage, her husband married 3 wives.

When I heard that I was going to stay in Dubai for a while because of business, my cousin was so excited that she couldn't sleep for a few nights. After I met my cousin in Dubai, I learned that although Dubai is more splendid than I thought, there are also many lesser-known places. Here's what I've seen and learned about what Dubai is like.

The most dazzling world

The tallest building in the world - Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa in Dubai is currently the only super high-rise building over 800 meters in the world, symbolizing Dubai's "arrogance". In the afterglow of the setting sun, the tower looks like a sharp sword that is about to burst into the sky from a distance, which is shocking from any angle.

The Burj Khalifa has a total of 162 floors and a total height of 828 meters. Construction began in 2004 and took more than 9 years to complete. The total cost is as high as 7 billion US dollars. There are 56 lifts in the building, as well as a double-deck sightseeing lift, which can carry up to 42 people at a time. A very cool ascending elevator is also installed here, with a speed of 17.5 meters per second, just like riding a rocket, it only takes two minutes to reach the top of the tower.

The building, which houses 1,000 luxury apartments, is said to have sold out within eight hours of its opening. At the center of the building is a hexagonal "buttress core" of reinforced concrete, with floors arranged in a spiral to withstand the raging desert storms. The Y-shaped floor allows the tower to enjoy a wide view, standing high to enjoy the stunning scenery of the Arabian Gulf.

The only seven-star hotel in the world - the Burj Al Arab

The Burj Al Arab is built on an artificial island on the seashore. It is the only seven-star hotel in the world. The construction cost is 1.5 billion US dollars. It is famous for its splendor and luxury. In appearance, it is an Arabian ship sailing. It uses more than 9,000 tons of steel and more than 70,000 cubic meters of concrete. It is supported by 250 foundations that go deep into the seabed. There are 56 floors and a height of 321 meters.

The doors and toilet pipes of the hotel are basically inlaid with gold, and many high-tech elements are incorporated into them. The Presidential Suite is on the 25th floor, the furniture is gold-plated, and it is also equipped with 7 personal butlers and a professional chef driver. The lowest room rate at the Burj Al Arab is $900 a night, and the presidential suite is as high as $18,000 a night.

The seven-star Burj Al Arab in Dubai claims to be the only "seven-star hotel" in the world, but it is slightly inferior to the only "eight-star Palace Hotel" in the world in Abu Dhabi. The Palace Hotel was built at a cost of US$3 billion , It is said that 22 tons of gold are used alone, and its luxury is staggering.

The world's largest shopping mall - The Dubai Mall

The Dubai Mall is located next to the Sheikh Zayed Expressway in Dubai's Al Barsha district, covering an area of ​​more than 1 million square meters, equivalent to the size of 200 football fields. There are 4 floors, the first floor is where luxury brands gather, the second floor is for FMCG apparel, and the third floor is for children's clothing. It has more than 1,200 retail stores, major department stores, and hundreds of food and beverage outlets.

The tallest residential building in the world - Princess Tower in Dubai

Dubai Princess Tower is located in the bustling waterfront area of ​​Dubai, costing 1.5 billion dirhams and 413.36 meters high, is one of the landmark buildings in Dubai. There are 107 floors in total, 101 floors above ground and 6 floors underground, of which 97 floors are residential. The top floor is priced at about 18.1 million yuan per home. However, since 2019, the Princess Tower has been surpassed by the 472-meter-high Central Park No. 1 in the United States and can only rank second.

The tallest hotel in the world - Marriott's Earl Hotel

The Marriott Earl Hotel is the tallest hotel in the world certified by Guinness World Records and has become a new luxury landmark in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. A single room costs $326.

In addition, Dubai also has the world's largest indoor ski resort, the world's largest music fountain and the world's largest airport, etc., all of which show the rich and willful style of Dubai's local tyrants, pursuing the most glamorous "most" and "first"

The world's largest artificial island in Dubai turned into a "unfinished building"

Under the halo of many "world's best" in Dubai, there is a "world's best" that used to be brilliant and radiant, but now it has become the world's largest unfinished project. It is a pity that it is the world's largest The artificial island of The Palm Dubai.

Construction of Dubai Palm Island started in 2001. It is one of the largest land renovation projects in the world. It stretches 5.5 kilometers into the Arabian Gulf and costs as high as 14 billion US dollars. It is known as the "Eighth Wonder of the World". The island consists of four island groups: Palm Jumeirah, Alishan Palm Island, Deira Palm Island and World Island. It covers an area of ​​more than 200 square kilometers and is named after a palm tree when viewed from the air.

The 17 palm-leaf-shaped islands are tree trunks, and the meridians on each palm leaf are neatly planned with buildings, surrounded by a circular wave-proof island. After construction, it will provide 12,000 private residential houses and more than 10,000 apartments, as well as an underwater hotel. The price of Palm Island is as high as US$800,000 to US$3.5 million, and people from all walks of life are buying houses here.

However, due to the financial crisis that swept the world in 2008, Dubai Palm Island was faced with insufficient funds and difficult construction. Only half of the original plan was completed and had to be put into a shutdown state. The people of Dubai who have money are also incapable of providing so much money to fill this huge hole, making the extremely luxurious Palm Island a distressed "unfinished building".

So far, it has been 13 years since the "unfinished building". With the continuous rise of sea level, this artificial island has gradually begun to sink because it is overwhelmed. Some experts speculate that there may be a crisis of disappearance in the future.

Only locals in Dubai and a few Indians are rich

In the impression of people in the world, Dubai is a city full of gold, luxury cars, and luxury homes. Dubai is full of local tyrants. In addition to luxury cars, they also have private jets or yachts for their vacations, which are quite cool. Even keeping pets is a ferocious lion and cheetah. The smell of luxury is everywhere. In fact, these are just a microcosm of the life of the locals in Dubai, and have nothing to do with outsiders.

Among the 3.3 million people in Dubai, only 15% of them are locals in Dubai. They are born with golden keys and naturally enjoy various wealth and benefits given by the government. 1,000-1,500 square meters of land are given at birth; both married men and women are locals and they can also get a set of finely decorated apartments donated by the government. They don’t need to think about buying a house at all, and they can also get a marriage subsidy equivalent to RMB 884,300.

A part of the government's various public facilities revenue will be distributed to local people as dividends, and any company must have half of the shares owned by local people. In addition, education, medical care, utilities, and taxes are all free of charge. Among them, expenses incurred for overseas medical treatment and air tickets and hotel fees for accompanying family members are also fully reimbursed.

All kinds of government benefits add up to allow Dubai people to live a life of worry-free clothes. The locals in Dubai either do not work, or they are engaged in high-ranking jobs in the government. They think that they are high-class people and should enjoy life. When they have nothing to do, they like to spend money.

In addition to locals in Dubai, there are also a few Indians who are also very rich. Its well-known LULU supermarket in Dubai, Aster Medical Group, GEMS Education Group, UAEXCHANGE Bank, etc. are all assets of Indians. Known as the Indian "Li Ka-shing" of Dubai, Yusuff Ali, the Indian founder of LULU Center, was worth $4.9 billion in 2018.

Marrying a Dubai man means losing freedom

In Dubai, I think it's a man's world. Once a woman gets married, she becomes a man's accessory and has no status at all. On the surface, the scenery is infinite, living in a luxurious villa, going out with a luxury bag, taking a luxury car, or even a private jet or a private yacht, and an unlimited number of bank supplementary cards given by the husband, you can buy and buy as you like. .

In fact, they are regarded by their husbands as their own personal belongings, they are not allowed to be coveted by others, they are not allowed to work, and their movements are restricted. When you go out, you have to wrap yourself tightly, wrap your head with a black silk scarf, wear black clothes on your body, and sometimes only show a pair of eyes. The cousin who used to love beautiful clothes is now basically out of touch with beautiful clothes.

Because Dubai men are rich, the standard of mate selection is also very high. In order to let the descendants of Dubai men have good genes, in addition to the two necessary conditions of high education and good looks, it is said that there are many requirements. Some Dubai men choose wives The complex process is comparable to a beauty pageant.

According to Islamic law, a man can marry up to 4 wives. Their identities are equal, and there is no distinction between high and low. However, because the cost of marrying 4 wives is too high, for example, to buy a private yacht for one wife, you must buy a private yacht for each of the other three wives, so in real life, there are not many people who actually marry 4 wives. Like my cousin's husband, he belongs to the special category of money and doesn't care about these costs.

To marry a Dubai man, you must first join Islam, and you will be severely punished if you break the rules. What a married woman has to do is to take care of the parents and children at home, and it is common to have seven or eight children. When there are guests at home, it is when the woman shows her talents, she is solely responsible for the sumptuous meal, and don't expect her husband to help.

There are many poor people in Dubai

Dubai is a city where heaven and hell coexist, and only local people are really rich. Among Dubai's 3.3 million population, 85% are foreigners, of which Indians exceed 40% of Dubai's total population and become the main force in Dubai, and 13% Pakistanis, most of whom are low-level migrant workers, low social status.

These migrants are mainly engaged in construction and service industries, such as manual workers, operators, drivers and other positions. Most of them came to Dubai with dreams of getting rich overnight, but in the end they were nothing more than a basket of water. They work hard and earn meager wages. The average worker can get 2,000 dirhams a month, equivalent to 3,400 yuan, just enough to support themselves.

They cannot enjoy various preferential policies of the government, and they have to pay for the treatment themselves when they are sick. When they are seriously ill, they cannot afford it. In order to save money, they often live in a small damp room with seven or eight people. Their "poor" contrasts greatly with the "rich" of the locals in Dubai, so many people leave this sad place after staying for a few years.

Dubai's oil-fueled days are long gone

Dubai used to be just an inconspicuous small fishing village. From the discovery of oil in 1966 to the 1970s, Dubai's oil exports accounted for half of the world's oil exports.

After more than ten years of development, the Dubai government realized that oil resources will always be exhausted one day. Since 1980, it has begun to transform into services, foreign trade, high-end real estate, tourism, finance, aviation, warehouse logistics and other industries, and has achieved success. . Smart Dubai people built many world-renowned buildings with the money they earned from oil, attracting people from all over the world to invest and travel in Dubai.

Dubai's oil reserves account for only 5% of the UAE's, and after decades of exploitation, oil resources are almost exhausted. The oil economy now accounts for less than 3% of Dubai's economic contribution.

Dubai's tourism industry is the best in the Middle East. In recent years, the number of tourists has been on the rise. In 2019, it received 12 million foreign tourists, ranking third in the world in terms of global tourism revenue.

Port trade is also one of Dubai's important financial revenues. Although the ports implement a low tariff policy, their port usage fees are very high. To sell the oil in the Persian Gulf region in the Middle East, it must start from the ports around Dubai. It also takes many days for oil to be shipped from shipment to ship, and Dubai Ports is taking advantage of this to earn port royalties from other countries.

With its solid "family foundation", Dubai seizes various opportunities, implements a diversified economy, adopts the policy of integrating the country and businessmen, and participates in the holding policy of the whole people, attracting a large number of investors, and building Dubai by "spending money". It has become synonymous with "prosperity" and "luxury", and has developed into the economic and financial center of the Middle East, known as the "city of miracles".

These things are not true in Dubai

1. Abandoned luxury cars all over the place

In Dubai, there are also a large number of Korean cars and Japanese cars passing through the city. The large number of abandoned luxury cars and super sports cars mentioned on the Internet are actually insolvent. In order to avoid the pain of jail time, they have to give up everything, including luxury cars, and quickly leave the city.

2. The monthly income of beggars is 470,000 yuan

It is rumored that the monthly income of beggars in Dubai is as high as 470,000 yuan, which proves that there is gold everywhere in Dubai, and they can actually get it for nothing. In fact, begging in Dubai is illegal. Once caught by the police, you will face huge fines and even be sent back to your country.

3. Police cars are the most luxurious in the world

Most of the Dubai police cars are not luxury cars. There are indeed a few luxury cars used for high-speed pursuits or special tasks. Dubai Police, for example, have built a fleet of luxury sports cars and SUVs to complement their fleet of patrol cars. These luxury cars are often seen at special events across Dubai or in tourist areas frequented by tourists, raising the profile of the Dubai Police. Therefore, people misunderstand that the Dubai police car is the most luxurious in the world.

4. Rich people like to keep large pets such as lions

On social networks, descriptions of Dubai often feature pictures of wealthy people showing their closeness to large pets such as lions. As everyone knows, this phenomenon will be put to an end. The Dubai government has made it illegal for citizens to tame this large wild animal as a pet. If found, they will face a fine of 136,000 US dollars or imprisonment.

5. The locals are all rich

Although locals in Dubai can enjoy many benefits given by the government, there is no poor among them, but they are also divided into classes, not all of them are rich and can spend freely. After all, there are still some locals who cannot marry a wife because of lack of money, and those who have to support a large family with only one salary from the male owner.

Building Relationships, Commitment and Love!

We continue our series on how to build satisfying interpersonal relationships. Commitment and love are important to all of us. We all want to succeed when dealing with others, whether with coworkers, friends, or loved ones. You know or you should know that there is no success secret, no checklist of things to do, and just as importantly things not to do. But we have many suggestions, now continuing with the letter me. We have written a double series of articles, chock full of suggestions for the letter I. Here the focus is on imagine, informed, and inspire.

I am for imagining. Imagination is king. Before it can happen someone has to imagine it. Don’t stop in the middle, don’t stop before you start, let your imagination run wild. Imagining that he or she loves you is the first step to making it happen. Who knows, maybe your intended is imagining the same thing. Imagining that you make a major sale is a different matter. For more details you can visit at www.the-spam-files.com. Your perspective client is surely not thinking about your product and you. Don’t let that stop you. Imagine that client’s specific needs. Imagine how your product or products can meet those needs. Imagine how you can deal with the client’s objections. Imagine how you can spend your commission. Then go out and do it.

I am for informed. Make sure that you know what the situation is. Do your spadework. It helps if you have access to sensitive information. But even if you don’t, there usually is a lot of public information available. Don’t believe everything that you read or everything that you hear. And learn to read between the lines or if you are talking face to face learn to read body language. you can also visit at www.tips-getting-healthy.com

I is for inspire. Few feelings are as great as the one that surges inside you when you realize you are inspiring someone to go further, to break their own limits. I’m a teacher and inspiring students is one of the great perks of teaching. Believe me; it doesn’t happen all that often. On the other hand, two minutes before it happens I usually have no clue that inspiration is on the horizon. Many successful people remember a select few teachers, mentors, bosses, or family members who inspired them to become what they are. You can do it. And when you do do it, make sure to inspire others to follow in your footsteps. Or even go way beyond you. You owe it to them. And you owe it to yourself.

Things You Should Know About Pet Health Care Insurance

Before you purchase a pet health care insurance plan for your pet, check the list of the companies approved veterinarians to see if your veterinarian will accept the companies check. Ask your local veterinarian what type of pet health care insurance plan would best suit your family pet. Ask your local veterinarian to read over the plan and listen to their advice. Talking to your local veterinarian will also help you establish if the insurance company you are considering purchasing your pet health care insurance plan from is reputable.

If you have purchased a pet that is as of yet unaltered you'll want to look for a pet health care plan that includes neutering and spaying.

Before you pay for a pet health care insurance plan you need to carefully read how the policy handles prescription coverage. Most companies that sell pet health care insurance do not include prescription coverage in their basic medical health care insurance plan. If you are concerned about the cost of any prescription your pet might need during the course of its life you should probably consider buying a prescription coverage rider to complement your pet health care insurance. Although this rider may appear expensive and unnecessary you'll probably wish you had purchased it if your pet is ever given a prescription for anything. Just like the human counterparts prescriptions are very expensive.

One of things you need to take into consideration when purchasing a pet health care insurance plan is the deductible. The deductible is the amount of money you pay out-of-pocket for veterinarian services rendered that your pet health care insurance plan does not cover. Different pet health care plans require different deductibles. The higher a the deductible you choose the lower your monthly payments to the insurance company but the higher deductible the more out-of-pocket extension had each time you visit the veterinarian's office/clinic.

Most pet insurance companies have "cap" or limit placed on each pet health care insurance plan. This cap varies from one procedure to the next a broken leg will probably have a different cap then cancer treatments will for your pet. Before you purchase your pet health care insurance plan talk to the company representative about waiting periods. Find out exactly how long it'll take over the policy to be effective and how long the general wait for claims to be reimbursed is. Most companies have a ten day period between the time they receive the vet bill and when the check gets placed in the mail. Also find out how the refund is processed. Does the pet health care insurance company pay the veterinarian directly or do you have to pay the vet and the company mails the check to you when they receive the bill.

Why you have the company representative on the phone task about any and all exclusions that might be included with your pet health care insurance plan. Specifically ask about any and all pre-existing conditions and hereditary defects that might come up later in your pet's life. Many pet owners especially, those that have dogs, discover that hereditary defects come into their particular dogs are not covered by their pet health care insurance plan. Some companies will allow you to cover these potential problems with an additional rider. In some cases your local veterinarian will be able to warn you about any exclusions.

If you are considering a comprehensive health care insurance plan ask if the plan covers teen veterinarian visits such as; dental care, immunizations, and heartworm testing. Also ask if the pet health care insurance plan also covers the office call.

Breast Reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer

What options for breast reconstruction are there for women who have breast cancer and need a mastectomy?

Plastic Surgeons are all trained to perform breast reconstructive procedures, although some specialize in this area and may be able to offer options that may not be available everywhere.

The two main methods of breast reconstruction are either by placing a breast implant (alloplastic - foreign body) under the breast or by using the body's own tissues (autologous - body's own). Withing the Autologous category, there are two main sub-categories. Free flaps and pedicled flaps. Pedicled flaps are the older method, and involve movement of tissues while still attached to the body... the 'pedicle' carries the blood supply to the flap tissue which is then moved from one area to another (the chest/breast in this case).

In Free Flaps... the tissue is cut out and then reattached at another location, sort of like a transplant but instead of moving a body part from one patient to another, here the body part/tissue is moved from one area of a patient to another area of the same patient. This is complicated because the blood vessels and possibly the nerves need to all reattached. This is done under a microscope or with the help of magnifying glasses, and is called "Microsurgery" (everything is microscopic, the sutures and needles used are so small you may not even be able to see them without a microscope).

In summarize:
- the simplest option is to use implants to recreate breast
(this usually involves first placing a tissue expander to expand the existing chest muscles as the implant goes under the muscle, followed by a second surgery where the expander is replaced by a permanent implant)

- next is the pedicled flap
(every plastic surgeon should be capable of performing this reconstruction, using either Latissimus dorsi flap, or more commonly a TRAM (transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous) flap)

- finally, the most complex but probably the best outcome is the free flap
(to provide this option, plastic surgeons usually undergo additional trainings (microsurgery fellowship) to learn the techniques of free flaps and perforator flaps)

Martin Jugenburg, MD
Toronto, ON